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Hardware Components of a Camera This section describes the hardware components of a camera

Camera? What do you mean camera

CAMERA, also known as computer camera, computer eye, etc., is a kind of video input equipment, which is widely used in video conference, telemedicine and real-time monitoring and other aspects. Ordinary people can also talk and communicate with each other through cameras on the network. In addition, people can also be used for all kinds of popular digital image, audio and video processing.

From the perspective of camera composition, the quality of a camera is mainly determined from the aspect of hardware:


The composition of a lens is a lens structure, consisting of several lenses, usually plastic or glass. Usually, the lens structure of cameras are: 1P, 2P, 1G1P, 1G2P, 2G2P, 4G, etc. The more lenses, the higher the cost; Glass lenses are more expensive than plastic. Therefore, a good quality camera should be a glass lens, the image effect will be better than plastic lens. In order to reduce the cost, most camera products on the market generally adopt plastic lens or semi-plastic and semi-glass lens (i.e. 1P, 2P, 1G1P, 1G2P, etc.).

2. Image SENSOR

Image sensors are classified into two categories: CCD(charge couple device) : charge-coupled device CMOS(complementary metal oxide semiconductor) : Complementary metal oxide semiconductor CCD has the advantages of high sensitivity, low noise, and high signal-to-noise ratio. But the production process is complicated, the cost is high and the power consumption is high. The advantages of CMOS are high integration, low power consumption (less than 1/3 of CCD), and low cost. However, the noise is relatively large, the sensitivity is low, and the requirement of the light source is high. In the same pixel CCD imaging often permeability, sharpness are very good, color restoration, exposure can ensure the basic accuracy. And CMOS products tend to be generally permeable, color reduction ability of the real object is weak, exposure is not very good. So we in the use of cameras, especially the use of CMOS chip products should pay more attention to skills: first of all, do not use in the backlight environment (this CCD), especially do not point directly to the sun, or 'magnifying glass burning ants' tragedy will occur in your camera. Secondly, the ambient light should not be too weak, otherwise it will directly affect the imaging quality. There are two ways to overcome this difficulty, one is to enhance the brightness of the surroundings, and the other is to choose the product requiring the minimum lighting degree. Now some cameras can reach 5lux. The last thing to pay attention to is the proper use of lens zoom, do not underestimate this, with the right adjustment, the camera can also have the function of shooting chip. At present, the market sales of digital cameras, the basic CCD and CMOS equal color. In the products using CMOS as photosensitive components, the effect of CCD cameras can be completely comparable with that of CCD cameras by using advanced image control technologies such as automatic gain and reinforcement technology of image light source, automatic brightness and white balance control technology, color saturation, contrast, edge enhancement and gamma correction. Limited by market conditions and market development, camera using CCD image sensor manufacturers are few, the main reason is the use of CCD image sensor cost.

3. Digital Signal Processing Chip (DSP)

The choice of DSP is determined according to camera cost and market acceptance. Now DSP manufacturers in the design and production of DSP technology has gradually mature, in various technical indicators are not very different, but some DSP in the subtle links and drivers to be further improved.

4. Image Resolution

The image resolution/resolution of the camera is that we often say how many pixels of the camera, in practical applications, the higher the pixel of the camera, the better the image quality of the shot, but on the other hand, it is not the higher the pixel is better, for the same picture, the higher the pixel of the product its ability to parse the image is stronger, but relative to the amount of data it records will be much larger, Therefore, the requirements for storage devices are much higher, so the choice of the current mainstream products. Due to the impact of camera price, computer hardware, imaging effect and other factors, the current market cameras are basically sold at the level of 300,000 pixels. In addition, CMOS imaging effect is not ideal on high pixel, so the high pixel camera market is still dominated by CCD cameras. It is worth noting that some resolutions refer to the interpolation resolution that can be achieved by these products using software. Although the accuracy of the obtained images can be properly improved, there is still a certain gap compared with the hardware resolution.

The function of the camera equipment is to take the image of the user and send it to the other side. The development of broadband network has changed the quality and form of traditional network communication, so that communication is no longer limited to ordinary words, using video to let friends from far away to meet each other. Camera equipment is a video phone equipped with an 'eye'. It gives you a glimpse of your partner's face and a glimpse of yours. Camera is the main camera in video phone. The camera works roughly as follows: The scene is projected onto the surface of the image sensor through the optical image generated by the LENS, then converted into an electrical signal, converted into A digital image signal through A/D(analog-to-digital conversion), and then sent to the digital signal processing chip (DSP) for processing. The image can be seen through the display. If the processing of the image signal through the telephone network to the other side of the video telephone display, the other side can see the local image. Cameras are divided into digital cameras and analog cameras.